Graduate programs leading to the Master of Science degrees in Earthquake Engineering, Geodesy, and Geophysics normally involve two years of graduate work and include,

a) A minimum number of 24 credits of course work to be completed in two successive semesters,
b) A thesis to be completed in the following two semesters.

Of the minimum number of 24 credits, at least one-third should be comprised of required courses specified by the program in which the student is registered. The remaining two-third may be chosen from among elective courses of the program or the courses acceptable by regulations of the Institute, subject to the approval of student advisor. The 24 credits of course work is normally made up of 500 and 600 level courses; however, with the approval of the advisor, some of the program may be composed of 400 level courses, a maximum of two of which with credit, not taken in the students undergraduate program.

Upon completion of course work with a grade-point average of at least 3.00, the student is required to carry out supervised research and complete a thesis in at most two successive semesters. At the discretion of the Institute, this period may be extended by one semester. The student is required to pass an oral examination after the thesis is submitted for approval.

Students with backgrounds in Geodesy and in Geophysics, in Geology and particularly in Physics, in Mathematics and in Computer Engineering may apply to M.Sc. program. However, students without a background in Geodesy and in Geophysics may be allowed to extend their course work to three semesters, taking complementary courses in related fields with the approval of advisor.


Graduate programs leading to the degrees of Doctor of Philosophy in Geodesy, Geophysics and Earthquake
Engineering include ;

a) A minimum number of 21 credits of course work to be completed in at most four successive semesters,
b) A dissertation to be completed in at least four at most six semesters following the completion of the course work.

The minimum number of credits of formal course work is made up of elective courses, at the discretion of the particular program in which the student is registered. Since a Ph.D. program is essentially the pursuit of individual interest in a specific professional field, the course work is planned under the guidance of an advisor to fit each student's specific objectives and needs. The 21 credits of course work should normally comprise 600 level courses; however, 400 and 500 level courses without credit, a maximum two 500 level courses with credit, may be included in the program by the approval of the advisor.

The students without an M.Sc. degree from Bogazici University must take at least two 500 or 600 level courses in addition to their regular Ph.D. program.

Upon completion of course work with a grade-point average of at least 3.0, the student is required to pass a qualifying examination. Subsequently, the student can start dissertation work under the supervision of an advisor appointed by the Institute.
The degrees of Doctor of Philosophy is conferred on candidates who have demonstrated general proficiency and high attainment of knowledge and competence in their special field of study, as well as capacity to carry out an independent investigation as evidenced by presentation of an acceptable dissertation embodying the results of original research. The degree requirements are completed on passing an oral examination.




GPH 501 Fundamentals of Theoretical Geophysics*(3+0+0)3

Vector fields in geophysics. Vector calculus. Multiple integrals.

Integral of vector fields over curves and surfaces. Integral theorems:

Green’s theorem in the plane. Stoke's theorem. Conservative fields,

potentials. Potential and fields for gravity and electrostatics. Fluid flow.

Electrical and magnetic fields. Partial differential equations in geophysics.

Heat equation. Method of separation of variables. Wave equation:

d’Alembert Solution. Wave equation in polar coordinates.

GPH 503 Mathematical Methods in Geophysics*(3+0+0)3

Matrix algebra,  inverse matrix, eigenvalues, eigenvectors.

Complex analysis. Integral transform. Application from geophysical theory.

GPH 505 Geophysical Data Processing*(3+0+0)3

Basic signals, sampling, Z transforms, Fourier analysis.

Least squares fitting, covariance and correlation functions.

Power spectra. Probability. Normal, Binomial and Poisson distributions.

Deconvolution, optimum filters, linear filters in earth sciences.

Special filters in geophysics: polarization analysis, f-k filtering.Matrıx algebra.


GPH 507 Introduction to Seismology**(3+0+0)3

Study of seismology, the science of earthquakes and its historical

development. Seismic waves: Body waves, surface waves. Travel

times and structure of the earth. Seismogram interpretation. Seismographs.

Anelasticity and anisotropy. Focal parameters of earthquakes: Earthquakes

and faults, location, magnitude, seismic moment, intensity, seismic energy.

Seismicity, seismotectonics, seismic hazard and seismic risk.

GPH 509 Introduction to Geophysical Methods (3+0+0) Non-credit

A detailed study of the theory and application of geophysical methods

for mining, petroleum exploration and engineering studies. Emphasis

on recent advances is seismic, gravity, electrical and magnetic

techniques. Laboratory work to solve exploration problems in magnetic,

electrical and seismic methods.

GPH 520 Plate Tectonics and Crustal Dynamics (3+0+0)3

The interior of the earth. Characteristics of the earth’s crust.

Principal tectonic features of the earth. Oceanic crust and spreading

centers. Plate motion; driving forces. Convergent margins; subductions,

back-arc basins. Oceanic transform faults. Triple junctions and supercontinents.

Collision, development of orogenic belts, formation of mountain roots,

ophiolite emplacement, sutures, delamination. Case studies: Himalaya,

Alps, Ural, Ands, Red Sea, Eastern Mediterranean, Anatolia, Aegean.

GPH 521 Earthquake Geology (3+0+0)3

Brittle fracture of rock. Rock friction. Mechanics of faulting and

earthquakes. Seismotectonics. Geology of earthquake source region.

Active fault morphology, tectonic geodesy, seismic cycle, earthquake prediction.

GPH 525 Computers in Geosciences (1+0+0)1

C and Fortran programming. Application of numerical methods

to computer simulations of geophysical methods. Development of

individual projects, writing appropriate computer codes. Introduction to

efficient use of Matlab as a tool for research in Earth Sciences.

GPH 528 The Physics of Earth’s Interior (3+0+0)3

Chemical and physical models of the earth. Studying structure of

the Earth’s crust by using explosion and earthquake seismology,

gravity, magnetic and electromagnetic methods. Case studies from

Turkey and the world.

GPH 530 Electromagnetic Methods in Geophysics (3+0+0)3

Study of electromagnetic sounding methods. Principles of magnetotellurics

(MT), controlled source audio-frequency magnetotellurics (CSAMT),

geomagnetic deep sounding (GDS) and very-low-frequency (VLF)

methods. Field applications and interpretation of electromagnetic data.

GPH 531 Fields in Geophysics (3+0+0)3

Introduction to the classical field theory of geophysical interest, namely

steady state and time dependent electromagnetic fields, currents.

Lagrangian field theory. Gravitational and magnetic fields.

GPH 532 Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism (3+0+0)3

Historical development of geomagnetism. Global geomagnetic

studies, observation techniques, instrumentation and geomagnetic

observatories. Introduction to paleomagnetism.

GPH 540 Wave Propagation I (3+0+0)3

Stress and strain, equation of motion, wave equation, One

dimensional solution of wave equation, body waves and ray theory,

Snell’s Law, travel times and the structure of the Earth.

GPH 542 Physics of Earthquake Sources I (3+0+0)3

Point sources. Near field, far field radiation. Equivalent body

forces. Double couple sources. Elastostatic. Elastodynamic. Seismic

moment tensor. Radiation pattern. Fault plane solutions. Finite sources.

Rupture models. Haskell source. Source directivity. Source spectrum.

Fault geometry and corner frequency. Stress drop, rupture velocity.

Magnitude. Energy.

GPH 543 Observational Seismology (3+0+0)3

Historical and conceptual background of observational seismology,

consequences of recent technical developments, seismicity, seismic

sources and source parameters, rules and procedures for magnitude

determination and magnitude scales, seismic waves and travel times,

seismic signals and noise, seismic data formats, data analysis

and seismogram interpretation, seismic analysis codes (SAC, Seatools,

geotools), locating earthquakes.

GPH 544 Seismic Instrumentation (3+0+0)3

Overview, basic theory and history of seismometry. The frequency

response function, the transfer function, the impulse response function,

the condition for stability, the step response function, pole and zero

positions. Seismometry, seismic sensors and their calibration, seismic

recording systems. Seismic networks: Site selection, preparation and

installation of seismic stations, seismic network purpose, seismic network

configuration, data transmission and data acquisition. Seismic arrays.

GPH 547 Seismic Interpretation (3+0+0)3

Theory of seismic refraction and reflection, data processing, velocity

analysis, filtering, migration, synthetic seismograms, two and three-

dimensional interpretation, computer applications and examples.

GPH 560 Environmental and Applied Geophysics (1+0+0)1

Principles and applications of geophysical methods, seismic refraction

and reflection, gravity, magnetism, electromagnetism, resistivity and

ground penetrating radar. Hands on field exercises and demos at

some selected sites. Familiarization with report writing and application of

each method. Site studies related to environmental, engineering and

archaeological problems.

GPH 579 Graduate Seminar* (0+1+0)Non-credit

The widening of students’ perspectives and awareness of topics of

interest to geophysicists through seminars offered by faculty, guest

speakers and graduate students.

GPH 591-594 Selected Topics in Geophysics I-IV (3+0+0)3

Topics related to the research works in geophysics. Practical

aspects of explosion and earthquake seismology. Use of software for

analyzing collected geophysical data and preparing scientific reports.

GPH 595-596 Independent Studies I-II (1+0+0)1

Independent research projects or directed readings designed to meet

the needs and interests of individual students. Regular conferences

given by students and instructors required.

GPH 598 M.Sc. Seminar (1+0+0)1

Investigation in depth of a special topic related with the student’s

major area of study and research in geophysics, with the aim of

original contribution to the subject. Preparation and defence of a M.S. thesis.

GPH 690 M.Sc. Thesis

Investigation in depth of a special topic related with the student’s

major area of study and research in geophysics, with the aim of original

contribution to the subject. Preparation and defence of a M.S. thesis.

GPH 601-602 Ph.D. Seminar I-II (1+0+0)1

Material collection and presentation of a particular subject of interest

to the student. Improvement of the students’ ability in self-initiated

learning, systematizing collected materials for utilization, not

only for oral presentation but also for information retrieval and responding

to questions.

GPH 630 Magnetotelluric Method (MT) (3+0+0)3

Theoretical basis of magnetotelluric (MT) method. Apparent resistivity

and phase relationships in MT. Field experiments. Data processing and

modeling of MT data.

GPH 631 Advanced Geomagnetism (3+0+0)3

Spherical harmonic analysis. External, crustal and internal geomagnetic

fields, representation of the internal field, secular variation, dipole and

non-dipole fields, westward drift. Introduction to dynamo theory.

GPH 633 Numerical Methods in Electromagnetics (3+0+0)3

Finite element method (FEM) in electromagnetism. Ritz and Galerkin

methods. One, two and three dimensional finite element analyses, boundary

value problems.

GPH 640 Array Seismology (3+0+0)3

The term “Seismic array”, geometrical parameters, beam forming and

detection processing, array transfer function, slowness estimation using

seismic arrays, array design.

GPH 641 Physics of Earthquake Source II (3+0+0)3

Moment tensor representation. Body wave modeling.

Surface wave modeling. Rectangular and circular fault models.

Rupture dynamics. Friction: Byerlee's Law, Coulomb failure, slip-weakening,

rate- and state-dependent friction. Nucleation, propogation and arrest of a

rupture. Crack growth model. Spatio-temporal seismicity patterns.

Characterization of fault zone structures, trapped waves.

GPH 642 Global Seismology (3+0+0)3

Global distribution of seismic sources. Large scale structure of

the Earth. Crustal and upper mantle propagation. Mantle and

core phases. Receiver function. Global tomography. S-wave splitting

and upper mantle anisotropy. Free oscillations of the Earth. Surface

waves on spherical earth. Normal modes. Centroid moment tensor.

GPH 644 Inversion Methods in Geophysics (3+0+0)3

Inverse of matrices, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, singular value

decomposition, linear inverse problems, least squares solution of

the linear inverse problems, solving underdetermined and overdetermined

problems with constraints, generalized inverses, monte carlo methods,

genetic algorithms.

GPH 645 Numerical Methods in Seismology (3+0+0)3

Developing computer algorithms for a variety of seismological problems.

Finite-difference and finite element methods for the solution of wave equation.

Numerical solution of Lamp’s problem. Ray tracing techniques. Solution

of integral equations. Propagator matrices. Time-frequency analysis of seismıc signals.

GPH 647 Wave Propagation II (3+0+0)3

Equation of motion, elastic wave equation, reflection-transmission

coefficients, surface waves, Lamb’s problem, wave propagation in

layered media, numerical solutions of wave equation.

GPH 671 Statistical Methods in Geo-Hazard Assessment (3+0+0)3

Basic concept of probability and random processes in geophysics.

Gaussian distribution. Exponential distribution. Stationarity. Wiener process.

Poisson process. Extreme value statistics Gumbel's distribution. Markov

sequences. Frequency-magnitude relationship. Time dependent hazard

models. Estimation: linear-mean square estimation, Bayes estimation,

maximum likelihood estimation. Methodologies for studying seismic

hazard. Case studies in Eastern Mediterranean region.

GPH 673 Advanced Exploration Geophysics (3+0+0)3

Advanced treatments of recent topics of interest in exploration geophysics,

with emphasis on refraction and reflection prospecting. Principles of

refraction and refraction seismology. Experience in computer processing of

seismic data.

GPH 691-694 Special Topics in Geophysics I-IV (3+0+0)3

Recent developments in geophysics are main contents of this lecture.

Contents of this lecture vary each year.

GPH 790 Ph.D. Thesis

Original research on the theoretical and/or applicational aspects of a

special topic related with the student’s major area of specialization in

geophysics. Preparation and defence of Ph.D. dissertation.

*   Obligatory courses.
** Can not be taken for credits by the Department of Geophysics students.




GPH530 - EM Methods pdf
Assoc.Prof. Bülent Tank 
GPH540 - Wave Propagation I pdf
Prof.Dr. Hayrullah Karabulut 
GPH542 – Physics of Earthquake Source I pdf
Prof.Dr. Mustafa Aktar 
GPH642 – Global Seismology pdf
Prof.Dr. Mustafa Aktar